Built in 1889-90, The mosque was built by the small Afghan community of South Australia. The four minarets were added by 1903. It is the only mosque within the square mile of Adelaide.
The Adelaide Mosque is historically significant as one of the few relics of Afghan immigration to South Australia in the nineteenth century. Camels were first imported in significant numbers in the 1860s and Afghan camel drivers played an important role in the development of outback South Australia. This community opened up much of the arid lands and kept them open by transporting necessary stores and mail to the station families. Camel trains and their drivers are no longer a part of the outback.